In the root of your site, create a file called _ss_environement.php
In that file place the following
// Set the $_FILE_MAPPING for running the test cases, it's basically a fake but useful
$_FILE_TO_URL_MAPPING[dirname(__FILE__)] = 'http://www.url.nl/folder';
What this is doing is telling SilverStripe how to figure out URLs for your site when it's executing in a CLI environment.
Once that's added in, make sure you click the 'play' icon next to the job to restart it (you might actually need to 'pause' it first, then hit play). If you see a 'gear' icon, you can click that and the job will process immediately in your browser.
I am also having issues with status broken and my queued jobs. I can execute the jobs from the font end by calling the process method manually. It is only when I use the QueuedJobService to queue the jobs that they instantly turn to status broken once they execute.
This is all happening running on a Windows Server 2008 environment hosted using IIS 7.5. The jobs work fine on my Ubuntu dev machine.
I tried your suggestion with the _ss_environment file but the jobs still aren't working.
I have also tried manually clicking the process button in the CMS Jobs tab but the job doesn't process properly. The request finishes instantly and nothing is returned. Normally when you do this the ajax post for the job will hang until the job is finished.