Strangely no errors in my logs at all, and none on the page itself. I'd share a link but this is only installed on an internal development server at the moment. I'm wondering if it has anything to do with the .htaccess file possibly redirecting incorrectly.
There are 3 links on the starting page if I remember right. Try going using the link that says "start with the CMS" or something similar. I remember I had similar problems, but using this link it worked.
Correct, the text is "Welcome to SilverStripe! This is the default homepage. You can edit this page by opening the CMS. You can now access the developer documentation, or begin the tutorials." I can follow the link to the CMS login, but when I enter my credentials it looks like it's doing something, but brings me back to the same page (with no messages or errors).