Not out of the box with the blog module no. You could try using the BlogTree with multiple BlogHolder under that with your years just keep it in mind though that it will affect the URL of your posts. For example you might end up with http://yoursite.com/blog/2013/title-of-post
Other option might be to manage blog posts in a ModelAdmin (a common use case), there are a few modules around that help with that.
I wonder if having structural folders in the SiteTree that don't affect the nav/url could be a useful new feature for SilverStripe? I can also see that being confusing too :)